Child Development Milestones
I am a big proponent of physical activity for kids because I know the positive impact it has not only on their physical development, but on child brain development, and perceptual-motor, social, and emotional development.
There has been some fascinating research done in the area of play and child development.
There are many children that for a multitude of reasons are unable to develop normally.
Those individuals will find themselves stuck in one of the stages longer than other children and some will never progress.
But for healthy, normal functioning individuals, this is what you can expect.
If you’d like to see the child development stages in the areas of motor, cognitive, and social/emotional growth, you can click the following links:
Here's an excellent resource that I used. I highly recommend this book if you're interested in learning more about this topic.
Birth - 6 Months: Reflexive & Spontaneous Movements
Birth - 2 Years: Rudimentary Movements
2 - 6 Years: Fundamental Movements
6 - 12 Years: Sport Skills
12 - 18 Years: Growth & Refinement
18 - 30 Years: Peak Performance
30+ Years: Regression
This stage actually begins about the time the fetus is 3 months old and continues until the baby is about 1 year. This phase of growth is characterized by reflexes and spontaneous movement.
Reflexes are involuntary responses to stimuli like sound, touch, light, and body position. Up until the age of 6 months, a newborn is basically a “reflex machine.” There are somewhere around 27 major reflexes seen in infants, but most of them disappear after 6 months while some will be seen up to about 1 year. There are some reflexes like coughing, blinking, and sneezing that we keep with us for life.
These reflexive movements are due to the immaturity of the nervous system. They are important for the baby’s survival and for stimulating the central nervous system and muscles for their growth and development. As the CNS matures, reflexes and spontaneous movements phase out and voluntary control increases.
Reflexive movements are the baby’s response to some sort of stimuli. In contrast, spontaneous movements are rhythmic types of motion that don’t seem to be in response to anything. They just occur, and they don’t seem to have any purpose.
Some examples which I’m sure you’ve observed are repeated kicking of one or both legs, arm waving, rocking back and forth on hands and knees, arm banging, and flexing of the fingers. It’s believed that these involuntary movements set the stage for future motor growth.
As the baby’s nervous system matures, voluntary movements start to be seen. Up until about 6-10 months of age, babies exhibit a combination of reflexes/spontaneous movements along with some new voluntary movements.
As more voluntary movements emerge, the baby is able to have more postural control, locomotor movement, and manual control. There seems to be a predictable sequence in the order that rudimentary movements appear.
They start with the head and neck, then move to the shoulders and upper body, and finally to the lower body. The movements also progress from the center of the body outward; for example, starting with the shoulders, then elbows, and finally the fingers.
Gross motor skills, involving movements of large muscle groups, show up before more fine motor skills develop.
The development of these rudimentary behaviors sets the groundwork for more advanced fundamental movement in later years.
In terms of postural control, babies learn to hold up their head and upper trunk first, then they learn to roll, then sit, and then stand. They also show a progression in locomotion from crawling, to creeping, to walking with support, and then walking alone.
This period marks a major milestone in early childhood and life span motor development with more than 30 characteristic movements starting to emerge.
There are basically 3 different types of fundamental motor skills:
Perceptual-motor awareness also occurs as kids develop a sense of body awareness and the ability to balance.
All these skills build a foundation for efficient and more complex movements that are needed in later child development stages.
During this phase, changes in physical growth, body structure, and physiological development allow the child to show significant improvements in the motor skills they have been using. As kids increase in body size, strength, cardiorespiratory capacity, and perceptual-motor ability they are able to show vast improvements in their motor abilities.
As their fundamental movement skills become more refined and fluid, they can adapt them to sport and recreational activities. Children tend to become more interested in sports participation during this time, which gives them the opportunity to practice their existing skills and learn new ones.
There is an incredible growth spurt and increase in the level of hormones that occurs, and these changes generally mark the first stage of adolescence.
During this period, the major changes in muscle and skeletal growth allow kids’ motor skills to become much more advanced. Differences in motor performance between the genders becomes more apparent during this stage.
This is especially true in the areas of strength, cardiorespiratory function, and processing speed.
You begin to see decreases in cardiovascular capacity, muscle strength and endurance, flexibility, and increases in body fat throughout the duration of life.